Laser Cut Yarn Samples


Yarn – 3mm

Hook – 4mm

Stitch – Foundation Chain, Double Crochet, Front and Back loops



Right Side

Yarn – 7mm

Hook – 6mm

Stitch – Foundation Chain; Raised, Treble



Wrong Side



Stitch – Foundation Chain; Brick



Stitch – Foundation Chain; Arcade



Stitch – Foundation Chain; Bouclé



Yarn – 3mm

Hook – 3mm

Stitch – Foundation Chain; Double



Hook Test

Yarn – 3mm

Hook – 3mm

Stitch – Foundation Chain; Double




Stitch – Slip Ring; Double, Increase and Decrease.




Stitch – Double, Mitre Square; Raised Treble; Slip stitch.





Stitch – Foundation Chain; Double, Mitre Square; Treble. Decrease.



Stitch – Foundation Chain & Double Crochet.



Tree Form

Stitch – Ring Foundation Loop; Double; Increase & Decrease; Bouclé




Stitch – Foundation Chain & Double Crochet.




Solomon’s Knot



Diagonal Stitch.



Ball Stitch



Woven Stitch.


L21 A, B & C

Screen Foil Trial, Hand applied.

Stitch – Double Crochet



Yarn – 3mm

Hook – 3mm


Yarn – 5mm

Hook – 4mm


Yarn – 7mm

Hook – 3mm



Yarn Ball

A Result of Winding Gone Wrong


The yarn had been wound as a dual wind process using two hand operated ball winders in tandem.

The next phase is to wind onto cones to enable easy storage and management of the yarn.

The yarn ball is transferred onto a cardboard tube and placed on an axis to allow free spinning as the yarn is ripped from the tube to through the cone winding process.

The tube is held unevenly on the axis spindle and can lead to erratic jolting. Also the loss quality of the yarn can lead to movement of the yarn ball and it slips from the tube and then winds and tightens around the axis spindle which knots to such a degree that is proves impossible to detangle

The yarn ball is an example of what is left.


This problem is yet to be resolved

Solutions to try

  • Leave as a ball the wind to cone from centre of the yarn ball.
  • Leave yarn ball on its winder use a bung with a hole in to stabilise spin on axis spindle.
  • Centralise cardboard tube to stabilise spin rotation.


Double Stitch


Alternate stitch



Dye Recipes



Using Dyeing cotton, Linen or Viscose Rayon with reactive dyes Procion MX Cold following the measurements for medium so –


“1.0 to 1.5gms of Procion MX 60gms salt 8gms of Soda Ash”



A medium sized mixing bow was used as a dye bath

2 Litres         hot water was used

3 level           dessertspoons of salt

¼tsp               Procion dye *Bottle Green


Soda Ash was diluted in a separate bowl in order to allow reuse of the dye bath.

8gms                         Soda Ash


2nd use of dye bath

⅛tsp.                            Procion Dye *Brown/red



In both uses all pieces of fabric were placed in the bath then pieces were removed at intervals.


Bath 1 Times of removal






Recipe 1

18.5gms Acid Dye *easidye Moss

2.0gms Ammonium

½ dessertspoon


Recipe 2

18.5gms Acid Dye *easidye Moss

6.0gms Ammonium

½ dessertspoon


Submergence and Removal Times In Out
1   10mins
2 2mins 12mins
3 4mins 14mins
4 6mins 16mins
5 8mins 18min



Crochet Tech File in Wool


Double Crochet

Cream – Wool & Silk

Hook – 4mm


Firm finish because dense nature of stitch. Foundation chain loose. Try tightening with using a smaller hook for foundation chain


Treble and Variations

Hook – 4mm

Stitch – Double, Half Treble, Treble, Double Treble & Triple Treble.



Demonstrates changes texture changes within a yarn. Also shows yarn change


 Front Loop & Back Loop

Hook – 4mm

Double Crochet, Front Loop & Back Loop; Alternate Front 1 Row & Back 1 Row

Chose crochet the technique in on sample to compare the changes to the original double crochet.

Front Loop – this variation gibes a flat finish with a pleasing twisted cord appearance alternating with a swirl effect row.

Back Loop – a ridged braided appearance that adds interesting texture. Using this technique also gives an elastic gather up like the rib effect in knitting.


Alternate front and back loop – this variation gives a combination of the two previous variations. One side is ridged with a double line of twist and one row of swirls. The reverse side is flatter with the swirls are more visible and the twist is replaced by long and short stitch appearance.


For such a small change the effects have been surprising difference. In each variation. This will give different uses and textures to apply.


 Front Loop & Back Loop

Hook 4mm

Stitch – Treble, Front Loop & Back Loop; alternating rows of Front & Back Loop.


The changes in variations are not so striking as with double crochet this could be due to height of stitch and weight of yarn, most likely the height of the stitch.


The twit appears with the front loop change and ridges are formed when the back loop variations is applied giving a pleated appearance.

When using the alternating row variation a chain link across the row is revealed, leaving the other side void of detail expect the stich twist height.


Raised Stitch

Hook – 4mm

Stitch – Raised.

Two methods and variations.

Round Front of Post, round back of post and alternating of rows and stitches.

Both Front and Back share a similar appearance of being heavily ridged similar of front and black loops technique but wit more emphasis. Appearance is altered with using alternating rows and stitches the ridges increased frequency with the reversed side being smooth and ridge free in the alternating row technique. The alternating stitch method produces vertical ridges and also tightens and draws in the width going some elasticity as in rib stitch in knitting.



Hook – 4mm

Stitch – Foundation

Chain, Treble & Chain



Working into chain space.

Using these techniques build an open stricture that forms meshes..


Bottom – This gives a firm mesh framework with alternating bars and open spaces. Top – Working into spaces between stitches. This gives a soft open meshwork that can be easily increased and decreased to give shaping, lacy in lightweight yarns.

5 a & b

Mesh 1 & 2

5a – Mesh 1

Small framework, Treble, 1chain.


5b – Mesh 2

Large framework, Treble, 2chain.


Diamond Mesh




Soft flexible structure formed using chain stich and double crochet. Used for borders & joining doilies.


Honeycomb Mesh.

Flexible framework with interesting negative spaces (hexagon).


Diamond Picot

Soft flexible mesh with nodule detail. Is used as a framework to work over in Irish crochet.


Solomon’s Knot

A pleasing structure that is flexible and decorative and firm in structure. Seems to return to form after stretch unlike diamond and honeycomb mesh.




A firm structure using basic stitches to form an open pattern.


Double Chain



A firmer foundation chain giving a narrow selvedge to start crocheting from neat start edge.

12 a & b

Double Faced

12a – Fiddly and laborious.


Gives a firm thick solid fabric.


Applying technique incorrectly. Back of loop is meant to be back loop of previous stitch after work is turned it becomes the front of the stitch.



Cracked it, beware of loss of stitch at each end of the row. Utilise chain first stitch correctly to maintain stitch count.


Increasing & Decreasing

One stitch each end of the row

14 a & b

Oval – making a disc.

Starting with a foundation chain, working round both side of the chain. Increasing twice at each end of the chain.


To encourage the oval to lie flat loosen tension on stitches around the increasing are a and or introduce occasion stitching increase along side/corner points.


Mitre Square

Increasing in the centre of the row.


A pleasing effect producing an asymmetrical pattern, a 90° turn in the piece.



Adding stitches to each row to encourage pieces to lie flat.

To loose joining hole always stitch in first stitch when producing a solid shape.

17 a & b


Square using chain to increase at corners this technique is used to produce many shapes.


A – On formation the corners were pulling round.


Note for improvement

B – Alter start to chain last stitch of row and chain of corner, also use hole before stitch instead of after.

18 a, b & c


Difficulty in this piece laying flat: Ideal from bowl creation such as a hat or across points e.g. knee, elbows and shoulders.


Alternate Stitch


Double Stitch


Up and Down Stitch


Chequer Board


Woven Stitch


Crossed Stitch


Diagonal Stitch




Open Ridge Stitch


Relief Stitch



Close Scallop


Lace Scallop



Wide Arches


Arcade Stitch




Wave Stitch


Bushy Stitch


Soft Cluster


Lace Cluster



Ball Stitch

46 – Clover

47 – Star

48 – Posy

49 – Daisy

50 – Chrysanthemum

51 – Eyelet

52 – Hawaiian Square

53 – Flower Square

54 – Old American Square


55 – Hexagon

56 – Paddle Wheel

57 – Dogwood

58 – Wagon Wheel


59 – Chained Overlay

60 – Woven Overlay

The density of piece is interesting and open another area of investigation for embellishment, texture and density. This is and area worth exploring once planned avenues have been travelled.


Lattice loops

Of all the loop stitches the Bouclé loop has the most pleasing effect and a pleasure to perform. The method 2 proves to be the quickest to perform but requires practice to achieve and even finish of loop length.

The aid of a ruler in method 1 proved fiddly initially but did give a regulated length to the loop.

63 a & b

Chain Loop Stitch

The Chain Loop is easy to perform but is difficult to maintain correct amount of stitches of each end leading to undesired increase and decreasing of stitches this distorting the piece and leading to irregular form and overall outcome. Even with continual checking mistakes were made. Also the density of stitches across the piece causes the piece to curl and is difficult to work.


Broomstick Lace


A fiddly stitch to begin with but a satisfying technique utilising a knitting needle and a crochet hook. As the stitch forms it gives a twist. The overall strength is good and feels sturdy with a lightness of open areas.



I have been trying to practise my sketching keeping hand and eye cordinated.  I really should have been sketching people but found myself drawn to windows.  Noticing the pattern and rhythms created in the repeated shapes.  Simple line and textures creating blocks of colour in framed fields.  I was struck by the lines that crossed each breaking routine within a set pattern. After sketching I recreated them in Illustrator to allow for repetition of basic form.  I first built the window frame with working pieces that would slide up and down to allow for cross-over and repositioning to mimic the differing heights across the pattern.  When satisfied with the working model I copied and built the repeat moving the internal frame to change the levels.  Then built the underling pieces of ‘curtain’ or object to appear beneath the frame.

It has given a pleasing effect one that I shall play with more.  The next step being to strip colour and reduce line and increase repeats to create pattern.  The aim to transpose into crochet pattern to inform texture for laser cut yarns.


In pursuit of upcycling and having knowledge of an under used resource of ex-hire bed linen I engaged my brain in thinking of ways to use this source. After a lecture by Tim Parry-Williams on his practice and his time spent in Japan. I combined two Japanese techniques. These techniques were Saki-Ori, shredding and weaving cotton reclaimed textiles, and Shifu, the art of creating paper yarn. These techniques combined showed a way forward in the use of the bed linen. The sheeting being of significant size pure washed and bleached able and ready to take dyes or lend itself to numeral processes.


I created Illustrator files to mimic the zigzag form that paper yarn takes after rolling and cutting. This would then be taken through the laser cutter to create the yarn.   These files contained three gauges of yarn 3mm(as in Saki-Ori), 5mm and 7mm. Choosing these three grades to trial was to then test in knitting and crochet samples using a variety of needle and hook sizes. Then study the effects on aesthetic, strength and appropriate uses.


  • The flexibility of the yarn to increase its desirability can occur at several stages. In the first instance the fabric can process through dye baths screen or hand printing/dying.
  • The next stage of colour manipulation can occur after shredding and treating and traditional yarns; dye baths, dip dying and space dying etc.
  • The final stage of colour manipulation is when the item/product is finished and experimenting with all printing and tying technique can take place treating it as a piece of fabric.
  • Also a few decision need to be made of how to create the zigzag to have it running aligned to the well or with the warp of the laser bed as the shorter turns could create and interesting texture when knitted.


Initial testing in the feasibility of creating the yarns has delivered promising results and the excitement of opportunities of more trials and possible outcomes.


Lessons learned from the initial tests taught me to have control over the yarn as it leaves the laser cutter bed to prevent tangling which are difficult to free. In disentangling has created an interesting frayed edge that could add to the aesthetic and charred edges creating in the laser cuts.


On discussion with my tutor another prospect of yarn technique was discussed spinning and developing the yarn to refine the finish even moving into plying the spun yarn. This could lead to another technique of cord making form plying or braiding the spun yarn using traditional techniques as in medieval times with a ‘lucet’.


There is much to do and explore in developing this further

  • Knit and crochet samples
  • Collaborations
  • Weave
  • Natural Dyers
  • Treatments Stages.
    • Pre
    • Post
    • Final



Machine Embroidery

David Maisel’s photography collection “Terminal Earth” has been a leading inspiration in colour and technique exploration. The images displayed here have been used to inspire a collection of hand/machine embroidery, displayed here along with the original artwork created from the photographs.

I enjoy sketchout idea with machine thread and whatever there is to hand. The artwork as a guide and expression of stitch, mind and hand step forward as the machine rumbles and thought is focused. The ideas that flow from needle and tread are food for thought bringing life and colour to ideas. It feels good to let it out.

I used squares from the hand brushed fabric spamples crated int the Brush technique experiment. The square form was selected to represent the patchwork square traditionally use in basic quilting and echo the shapes of the evaporation ponds in the original imagery.

Avenues to explore

  • To up scale the samples
  • Introduce ways of adding texture to fields of colour
  • Move scanned samples into Illustrator to experiment in machine embroidery.
  • Refined small samples for individual use on products such as
    • Bags
    • Cushions
    • Place Mats
    • Patch Pocket details.
  • The small ideas can be explanded in detail and explored in colour and pushed forward to form more individual pieces or a large faux patchwork piece.
  • The Scanned artwork and embroidery can be taken into Photoshop and manipulated to create digital print designs for interior or fashion design.

Working on these samples re-engaged me with previously learned techniques and will always be a way of expressing my idea as much as using mixed media art materials. I must remember to start here as well as dream big.


Experimenting with screen foiling velvet using a variety of adhesives and their application.

  • Screen foil glue
    • Roller
    • Brush
  • Bonda web
  • Bonding powder

Then using the heat press to adhere the foil to the various glues.  Results were satisfying and delivered a series of possibilities to be retested and moved forward.  The aims of the trials are to discover a pleasing aesthetic that would also give enough foil density to trial in laser etching and embroidery; to render the design visible.20160316_102049

Inspiration for the fabric aesthetic came from viewing the Chancellor’s purse at the Holbourne museum. The fabric’s worn and faded and in places threadbare, the lived in look adding to its value and respectful age.20151124_155709



In testing proved too dense making the fabric un-pliable for stitching although would work well in laser etching but the foiled area lacked texture and desired worn appearance.


Bonding Powder

This gave a desirable sprinkle twinkle to the foiling, although the application of the powder needs to be refined to give an even effect or controlled to use in designed line. For this trial it will remain untested as the foiling is not dese enough to show the laser etch or embroidery as it is too busy.20160316_101620


Practise needed in getting even coverage but a pleasing effect giving the appearance of distressed painted surfaces. Again the trail will be left to a later time, as before the foil coverage is too busy.


Although the glue has been too heavily applied the coverage is sufficiently dense and even to move on the further trials to improve glue application, with a view to move into laser etching and embroidery.